With morels, truffles and champignons, people were familiar even before our era. Strange, why so far not everyone knows how to cook mushrooms properly? This is a special product that requires certain knowledge. But there is nothing complicated and intricate in cooking. It is only important to know some nuances and avoid mistakes.
The main question: cook or not?
There are mushrooms that are eaten raw. The most famous of them are champignons, truffles, oyster mushrooms. All other types require pre-boiling. The product is heavy, it is not easily digested, it gives a very strong load on the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to boil, and then cook according to the recipe. Forest mushrooms are boiled on a mandatory basis. Long boiling removes alkaloids. These are toxic substances that adversely affect health and lead to poisoning.
Cook mushrooms in two waters. It is necessary.
During primary cooking, harmful substances are released into the water. It lasts 5-10 minutes. Then change the water, boil the mushrooms for another 30 to 45 minutes.
How much to cook different mushrooms:
- Champignon and oyster mushrooms cook symbolically 5-10 minutes, orient themselves to their taste.
- Chanterelles, aspen mushrooms. They cook a little longer, on average 20 minutes. Large specimens can be boiled for 25 minutes.
- Russulae. Although the name says a lot, in raw form these mushrooms are better not to eat. Half an hour cooking they do not interfere.
- Brown cap boletus, white mushrooms. Prepare 40-45 minutes in boiling water.
- Honey mushrooms. In the second water, boil for at least 40 minutes, preferably 50-55 minutes until absolutely ready.
And only milk mushrooms do not lend themselves to the general rules. These mushrooms require soaking. They are kept in cold water for at least an hour, and then boiled, and only a quarter of an hour. You can soak milk mushrooms all night or all day.
By the way, in ancient times when cooking in a saucepan with mushrooms they threw onions. Allegedly, she showed with her color whether a poisonous specimen had been caught. In fact, this method has no scientific explanation.
Processing and Preparation Nuances
Regardless of the dishes and the type of mushrooms, they require washing, cleaning. And here it is important to know some points. Mushrooms are similar in structure to sponges. They also quickly absorb water, soak, it increases their weight and spoils. No need to soak mushrooms to quickly get rid of dirt. It is more reasonable to work under the tap, use soft brushes and scouring pads. Preparation highlights:
- With boletus, aspen, and white mushrooms scrape off the film on the cap. It is tough, even after long cooking does not get softer.
- The fungus is always checked for worms. Sometimes only the legs are affected, this should be taken into account. Worm parts are immediately discarded.
- If the gills of mushrooms are black, soft, slimy, then they are carefully cut with a knife, trying not to touch the cap.
- It is possible to boil the mushrooms in slices, but it is better to be whole and chopped before frying or stewing.
Besides the ability to absorb water, there is a lot of it in mushrooms. That is why after cooking, they are reduced in size, lose weight. This should be taken into account when cooking and buying a product.
Legs and hats
The legs are much tougher than the caps, contain other substances, are more difficult to process by the stomach. They decided to cook more. It is even better to use separately, for example, for soups, fillings in pies, pancakes. From the legs you get a wonderful mince, which can be added to potatoes, eggs, mixed with meat, rice, greens.
If you do not want to spend time and effort on separate preparation, you can simply cut the legs smaller than the cap, for example, plates across the fibers. A thickness of 2-3 millimeters is enough. Because of its wiry structure, the pieces will not fall apart during cooking.
Dried mushrooms are not prepared as fresh analogues. They need to return the former softness and freshness, volume. Most often forest mushrooms are harvested. Mushrooms in dry form is almost impossible to meet. Therefore, after soaking mushrooms need to cook. Boil them for at least 35 minutes. Then you can fry, simmer, bake.
How to cook dried mushrooms.
- Fill with cold water. Since the product has lost 80-90% of moisture, at least 1.5 liters is used per 100 g.
- Leave at least 3 hours, maximum 5-6 hours. It is not necessary to keep longer, the taste will go into the water.
- Put the mushrooms on the stove in the same water, if necessary add some more. Boil the above time.
- Drain into a colander, allow to drain. After that, you can use the mushroom for dishes, decoction as broth.
If the mushrooms are initially dirty, then they should be soaked for an hour, rinsed with a brush, change the water, let it swell in a clean liquid. When cooking it does not change to keep a rich taste.
Secrets of cooking mushrooms from French culinary
- Mushrooms when frying are poured only in the oil heated to a boil almost to the boil. This product does not like low temperatures. Otherwise, it begins to absorb fat better than water, it becomes tasteless.
- For soup, sauces and other dishes use only the second mushroom decoction. In the first water, harmful substances, remnants of sand, earth, it is dark in color.
- If you need to fry boiled mushrooms beautifully, they are lightly sprinkled with flour. You can powder through a strainer.
- Mushrooms like butter, but add it at the very end. For frying it is better to use vegetable fats.
- Mushrooms can be frozen fresh or boiled. If they were boiled after freezing, then it cannot be repeated, the entire amount should be determined.
TOP-5 mushroom dishes
- Julien. The famous French dish, which is baked in a portion of the dishes under the cheese. In addition to mushrooms, chicken, milk sauce, onion, mayonnaise, and garlic are often present.
- Fried mushrooms. Russian dish. Roast mushrooms in a pan, often with onions and sour cream.
- Mushroom Soup. The most popular mushroom entree. Usually cooked with vegetables. Soup is ordinary, but now at the peak of popularity cream options with cream, cheese.
- Mushrooms with potatoes (roast). This is not the first, but not the second dish. Universal option for dinner and lunch. Sometimes mushrooms are stewed with vegetables and meat or poultry.
- Mushroom caviar. Snack and preparation for the winter. More often prepared from honey agaric. A great option for sandwiches.