Just leave fresh and barely warm milk on the kitchen table, and read the article to the end, watch a movie or do something else, but at this time invisible natural helpers will make homemade yogurt from milk themselves.
At this one could consider the topic of the article fully disclosed, but since the conversation started, why not learn more in order to learn how to make fermented milk products on your own?
Milk is a product that is difficult to spoil. Sour milk is a new tasty and healthy product. This was known to people who tamed the first mammals, but did not manage to invent refrigerators for storing perishable goods. Then came the first sour milk. Maybe the first fermented milk product was obtained from goat milk, and maybe from mare or buffalo milk. The taste of the milk of these animals is different, but its main components were and remain unchanged.
Modern scientific and technical achievements of mankind allowed to look at the composition of milk, find out what biochemical processes turn it into a new useful product.
How to make homemade yogurt from milk: natural helpers
We are surrounded by an invisible world of microorganisms. Dairy bacteria help people not only in the fight against harmful microbes, but also provide an invaluable service in creating a diverse assortment of fermented milk products. Without them, people would never know the taste of cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, kaymak, ayran, koumiss, they would not know how to make homemade yogurt from milk, because without this invisible naked eye of the army, assistants of such dairy products would not exist at all.
Dairy industry fermented milk microorganisms long ago “recruited”. At home, they also work very successfully, but housewives often don’t wonder why the tastes of kefir, yogurt and other dairy products differ significantly from each other. It is time to get closer to the species diversity of beneficial microorganisms, so that you can not only make homemade yogurt from milk, but also please your loved ones with other fresh dairy products.
So, fermented milk bacteria, there are two types:
Cocci are spherical mesophilic bacteria that do not form spores. Optimum temperature environment: 25-370C. Propagated by dividing cells. Food: milk sugar (including lactose). As a result of the processing of carbohydrates, lactic acid is formed, without gas formation. With the formation of acidity of 6-7 mg / l dairy streptococci stop working, since a higher acid content acts on them detrimental. The most widely used species for the preparation of fermented milk products at home are milk lactococci, since they are most common in “wild” conditions.
Bacilli (sticks) - elongated thermophilic bacteria. Work best at 40-450C. Bulgarian bacillus and acidophilia are the most widely used for the preparation of fermented milk drinks, are considered “pure” cultures (grown in the laboratory), withstand a much higher level of acidity than mesophilic bacteria.
Along with sour-milk bacteria in the production of some lactic acid products (koumiss, kefir, acidophilin) yeast fungi are used, which form alcohol. These two types of microorganisms get along well with each other.
Very often, Bifidococci, bacteria that are classified as a separate probiotic group of microorganisms, is used to enrich the product.
To complete a brief excursion into the terrestrial microcosm, it remains to add that the shelf life of dairy products is increasing, precisely because of the influence of lactic acid bacteria and the acidic environment that they form as a result of their vital activity. Acidic environment prevents the development of putrefactive bacteria, mold and other harmful microorganisms, acting as a preservative, although dairy products and are not considered as canned food.
How to make homemade yogurt from milk - pretreatment of raw materials
Of course, speaking of homemade yogurt, most often it means cooking it from homemade milk. In this regard, one must first of all remember the precautionary measures when consuming home-made milk products, which will help to avoid infection with intestinal infections. For your information, not pasteurized cow's milk contains 96% of pathogenic microorganisms and only 4% - useful microflora. Only thanks to pasteurization and exposure to lactic acid bacteria, it is possible to neutralize the microbes contained in the fresh product.
For this reason, milk entering dairy enterprises is subject to mandatory pasteurization. At home, for the preparation of fermented milk products from non-pasteurized milk, it is necessary, at a minimum, to ensure that the animal from which it is received is regularly vaccinated and examined by a veterinarian, receives proper care and high-quality food. If homemade milk is bought from an unfamiliar seller in the market, it is better not to risk it: be sure to pasteurize. It is advisable to do this in non-stick and non-oxidizing dishes. Milk intended for further preparation of fermented milk products is heated to 850C and kept at this temperature for at least 10 minutes; at a temperature close to boiling (92-950C) - at least 5 minutes.
At this preparatory stage of preparation of yogurt and other beverages can be considered complete.
How to make homemade yogurt from milk - the main technological methods
Now, having learned the most important things about fermented milk bacteria, let us consider what products and what method can be prepared using different microorganisms.
Every housewife knows at least one, the easiest way to make yogurt.
Fresh, unpasteurized whole milk is placed in a jar in the warmest place in the kitchen. At the same time, the neck should not be tightly covered with a lid or tied with gauze to avoid contamination, but at the same time provide access to milk by lactic streptococcus. After 8-10 hours, the finished fermented product is transferred to the refrigerator and stored for no more than 36 hours. Second Method:
The milk is pasteurized as described above. After it is cooled to 40-450C and added either sour cream or thermophilic live bacteria (Bulgarian bacillus, acidophilus). Sour milk from pasteurized milk has a milder taste, with a light creamy tint.
In the first and second methods of producing yogurt, a dense clot is formed, without disrupting the structure, without bubbles of carbon dioxide. The fat content of milk and its volume do not matter. The amount of starter added mainly affects the duration of fermentation of milk. It is possible to purchase cultures of lactic acid bacteria in a pharmacy or in specialized stores, and use them according to the attached instructions. But fermentation of milk will be successful with the addition of natural yogurt, sour cream, kefir, with which you can get similar products using ready-made colonies of bacteria contained in these products. Nature herself knows how to make homemade yogurt from milk, and sour cream from cream.
Many housewives know how to make yogurt, in which crumbled rye bread is added to warm non-pasteurized milk. What is rye bread added for? Knowing that there is malt and yeast in the bread, it is easy to guess that with this method of fermenting milk, not only sour-milk bacteria, but also yeast are involved in the process, which significantly changes the taste of yogurt.
This method of making yogurt can be considered Russian, popular, an attempt to make kefir at home, because kefir contains, albeit in small quantities, yeast, which in the processing of milk sugar and malt form alcohol and carbon dioxide. But to get kefir, this method lacks in the composition of the leaven of two components: the Bulgarian rod and aroma-forming bacteria. Therefore, if you want to make natural kefir at home, it is better to buy kefir starter, because it is difficult to make such a compound at home. By the same principle (using yeast), koumiss (from mare's milk), ayran (from cow's milk), shubat (from camel's milk), Greek yogurt (from goat's milk) are prepared.
It remains to be remembered that in India a similar drink is made from buffalo milk: in fact, sacred Indian cows are a type of buffalo, one of the few that man has managed to tame. Of course, it is unlikely that our housewives will be able to get fresh buffalo milk with the same fat content, but if you want something exotic, then try using cream (20%) to make kord (kurd). Also on the basis of such fermented cream is preparing a wonderful lassi - Indian yogurt, with the addition of mango, citrus, sweet and fragrant spices.
Having mentioned koumiss and yoghurt, it is necessary to say that the preparation of these drinks, in contrast to yogurt, is impossible without the mechanical processing of the milk clot. Although the mares and goats' milk has a composition that produces a more gentle clot, the clot is constantly being mixed in the process of cooking. In industrial conditions, the mechanical processing method is also used to form a soft, uniform in texture, stretching texture.
In principle, homemade yogurt can also be made similar to yogurt, but in this case, you need to purchase Bulgarian stick for the leaven, and in the cooking process use yogurt maker or a stationary blender.
As you can see, yogurt is a popular drink all over the world and can be prepared in various ways.
How to make homemade yogurt from milk - interesting recipes for home cooking
Recipe 1. Mechnikovskaya sour milk
A weighty argument in favor of the regular use of this type of yogurt lies in its name. Yes, for the first time the study of lactic acid bacteria was not taken by Louis Pasteur, but by the Russian professor I.I. Mechnikov, who was in exile, and worked at an institute owned by Louis Pasteur. The French, having failed to conquer Moscow, in the absence of modesty, appropriated a Russian professor and Nobel Prize winner in 1908, along with his discoveries. So, Ilya Ilyich studied the problem of aging and came to the conclusion that the very high beneficial role of lactic acid bacteria in the fight against the irreversible age-related processes of the body. Further, the professor became interested in the research of the young Bulgarian scientist Stamen Grigorov, invited him to take part in the research of fermented milk bacteria of all “nationalities”. The result of these studies was Mechnikov's yogurt, in the leaven of which Bulgarian wand is used without fail.
- Natural milk, cow 5 l
- Lactic streptococci, thermophilic
- Bulgarian stick
Despite the use of bacteria that are resistant to high temperatures, milk warms up to 25-300C, in order to preserve its vitamin composition as much as possible. This swordsman sour milk is different from other types of sour milk. Enter the bacteria into the warm milk, stir. For this type of sour milk, it is better to buy a ready-made composition of lactobacilli, and use them according to the package instructions. In the future, for cooking, you can use part of the previously prepared yogurt with the same set of bacteria, at the rate of 50 g of yogurt per liter of fresh milk. If you use milk with a high percentage of fat (more than 4%), then it is desirable to beat it up when heated to break up large fat molecules and get a more homogeneous mass. After the introduction of bacteria, pour the milk into prepared jars, cover with lids and leave to cool and ripen at a temperature not lower than 200 ° C, then transfer the jars for cooling and storage at 80 ° C. The method by which sour milk ripens in a specially prepared container is called a thermostat. It allows you to get the finished product with a solid clot, without breaking the structure.
It is recommended to use sour milk sour milk during the day.
Recipe 2. Sour milk drunken
- Milk whole (3.2%) 3 l
- Acidophilus 20 mg
- Yeast, instant 1 g
- Sugar 50 g
Cool pasteurized milk to 250C, enter the specified additives and close the bottle neck with a plastic or nylon cap. After 8-10 hours, put the bottle in the refrigerator. After cooling, pour the yogurt into another bottle through a strainer, rubbing the resulting clot to a uniform consistency. You can use the immersion blender.
Recipe 3. Sour milk from baked milk - ryazhenka
- Whole milk, “evening” 3 l
- Sour cream 20% 100 g
Pour natural cow's milk into jars with a capacity of 0.5 liters, leaving free space, 3-4 cm from the edge of the neck. Put the containers on a baking sheet and transfer to the oven. Preheat the oven with the milk, gradually increasing the heat. Milk should languish, do not bring it to a boil. Formed on top of the milk film gradually acquires a bright brown color. Turn off the oven, leaving a jar of melted milk in it. When it cools down to 25-300C, carefully lift the brown film on each jar and place a spoonful of sour cream under it. Align the surface film so that it covers the milk with leaven. When ryazhenka cool, remove the jars, cover them with lids and refrigerate until thick.
How to make homemade yogurt from milk: instead of an epilogue - about the health benefits
- Milk is the first product that a person consumes immediately after birth, and milk protein, the best invention of nature, which is necessary for a person throughout life.
- There are people who cannot use fresh cow's milk because it causes, for example, heartburn or other disorders of the digestive system, but at the same time, dairy products do not cause such problems.
- The human digestive system is designed in such a way that only female breast milk is normally perceived, and of all types of milk, only goat milk has a composition close to that of human milk. From here there is an imbalance in the use of cow's milk, which is most widely used in the dairy industry.
- Fermented milk products are not only well absorbed by the human body, but also have a beneficial effect on the immune system, improve blood composition, and help get rid of many ailments.
- The secret of such an effect on the body lies in the transformation of milk protein: casein collapses under the influence of lactic acid, acquiring a lighter structure, which facilitates the process of its assimilation. When fermenting milk, vital enzymes and amino acids are formed, which are rarely found in other products.
To paraphrase a well-known children's song, in conclusion I want to say: drink yogurt - you will be healthy!