The modern market strikes with a variety of forms, names and filling of colorful packages and containers with fertilizers. We are offered such a huge amount of different drugs that, at times, get confused in the matter of choosing one or another fertilizer for their plants, even an experienced summer resident can. What to say about newbies! In this article, we suggest the reader to get acquainted with WMD - a complex granular organomineral fertilizer of prolonged action, which compares favorably with other modern complex fertilizers. Why is WMD the best food you can offer your plants, and how does it work? This and other questions are answered by the head of the agro-chemical service of the Buysky fertilizer plant - Belozerov D. A.
Why is the content of batteries in a WMD lower than in azofoska, for example, and the effectiveness of fertilizer is higher?
Answer: The assimilation of nutrients from the soil by the plant’s root system proceeds differently. Of the mineral fertilizers introduced under the digging, nitrogen is absorbed by about 50-60%, phosphorus by 10-20%, and potassium by 30-40%. The rest of the applied mineral fertilizers, evaporates into the atmosphere (nitrogen), forms insoluble compounds, or with irrigation, rainwater goes into deeper layers of soil (phosphorus, potassium). Thus, NPK 15-15-15 of the NPK introduced into the soil remains NPK 7, 5-3-5.
Due to the organic pellet of OMU consisting of lowland processed peat, batteries do not interact directly with the soil environment - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are stored within the granules for a long period and remain available for the root system of plants. NPK from WMD is absorbed by 80-90%. That is, from NPK 7-7-8 introduced into the soil, 6, 3-6, 3-7, 2 enter plants. Also, conventional mineral fertilizers contain only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, and magnesium, sulfur, a set of trace elements, humic substances and a microbacterial additive are additionally present in the WMD, which together gives the greatest result in yield, and most importantly, in the quality of the grown products.
It is also worth noting that in the pursuit of crop yields, some gardeners choose to fertilize more than what is stated in the recommendations. The increased content of mineral salts in the root zone leads to an increase in soil salinity and chemical burn of the roots. More harvest can not get, and lose the possible - yes.
WMD does not burn the root system of a plant, even if it is placed under the root more than necessary, due to the organic basis - peat granules. The organic granule is “native” to the surrounding soil environment; therefore, the root system does not experience stress from the close presence of WMD, but, on the contrary, twists the granule with the roots and draws nutrients from it to the extent that the plant needs.
Why are bacteria in WMD and why are they not in common mineral fertilizers?
Answer: Bacteria lived, live and will live in our environment in a huge amount and diversity. For example, on the human body at the same time about 150 species of bacteria and 20 species of fungi coexist, in spite of all kinds of hygiene, shampoos and so on.
In the soil environment, thousands of species (strains) of bacteria that live regardless of human activity, are engaged in the decomposition of organic residues (of plant and animal origin) in the soil and on its surface. Over thousands and millions of years of their activity, they have given us the fertile layer in which we are engaged in agriculture. Depending on weather and climatic conditions, somewhere it is chernozem reaching one and a half meters or more, and somewhere in the permafrost the fertile layer is 10-15 cm. The soil is considered fertile and “working”, that is, ready for the reproduction of nutrients, leaving it with our harvest, if it is rich in active microbiology. With the help of fertilizers, we artificially raise its fertility. Excessive fertilization reduces the number of bacteria in the soil, or completely destroys the microbiota. Then the soil becomes lifeless and its natural mineral reserves quickly run out. Fertility dries up.
Man conditionally divided bacteria into beneficial and pathogenic, although the basic law of nature operates for bacteria - to survive and leave offspring. And what they do while doing this can help us gain or lose our harvest. Therefore, scientists isolate or create strains of bacteria that are beneficial to plants and humans. On their basis, they make special microbiological preparations that improve the structure of the soil, more effectively decompose organic fertilizers, composts, leaves and everything that we bury into the ground in the soil.
In the process of producing WMD, a microbiological preparation is applied to its granule based on the two most common bacteria Bacillus Subtilis and Bacillus Mucilaginosus. These are rhizosphere bacteria, that is, bacteria that live in the zone of plant roots. These bacteria are symbiotes - they feed on plant root secretions (proteins, amino acids, sugars, etc.), decompose with their enzymes (secretions) organic matter and minerals in the soil, which include the elements we need - phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements.
Bacillus Subtilis are bacteria that fill the root space and do not allow other conditionally pathogenic bacteria into it. Thus, they perform the function of protecting the roots of plants, and prevent the possibility of their diseases, the appearance of root rot. Bacillus Subtilis exhibit a versatile effect on pathogens - they produce antibiotics, are antagonists in relation to phytopathogens, increase the immunity of the plant. Bacillus Mucilaginosus is a bacterium that, due to the release of its enzymes, mainly processes soil minerals and makes available soil phosphorus and potassium. Especially problems with the availability of these elements occur on alkaline (carbonate-rich) soils, where from the phosphoric mineral fertilizers applied there is little effect and phosphorus is not absorbed by plants, but from year to year it accumulates to rates exceeding the permissible levels several times.
Thus, the microbiological additive applied to the pellet of WMD improves the soil structure in the root zone, preventively protects the roots from pathogenic forms of bacteria and additionally provides our plant with nutrients that are in the soil but inaccessible for assimilation.
How long does bacteria live on WMD?
Answer: Bacteria survive in very harsh conditions and there are examples of their detection in space on asteroids and on the outer skin of spacecraft.
Of course, they may die. If you create conditions unsuitable for the life of bacteria, some of them can turn into a spore form and, when favorable conditions occur, go into a vegetative form and develop again, multiply.
When it comes to soil bacteria, the adverse conditions are created by nature (frost or drought) or due to the introduction of large quantities of mineral fertilizers. With high soil salinity, beneficial bacteria die, even turning into a spore form. Due to osmotic effects, the spores become dehydrated, leading to the death of the bacterium.
For the development of bacteria need oxygen, water and food. Being on a pellet of WMD for bacteria is not enough moisture and nutrition. They are in the form of a dispute and can exist in such a state for a very long time. And since the fertilizer granule is organic (peat), the osmotic effects do not occur and the spores remain dormant and do not die. On granules of mineral fertilizers spores die. When WMD are introduced into the soil, the spores receive a sufficient amount of moisture, oxygen and pass into a vegetative form - they begin their activity.
In soil, bacteria pass into spore form at temperatures close to 0 ° C. When the temperature rises, wake up.
Where do humic substances come to WMD and why are they needed?
Answer: At the final stage of fertilizer production, the potassium humate of its own production is applied using a spraying method. Also, for the production of WMD, lowland peat of a high degree of decomposition is used, which is extracted from the ancient bogs of the Kostroma region. Such peat is rich in useful elements, minerals, but first of all - humic substances.
Humic substances that make up peat are useful for plants. They play the role of natural stimulators of growth processes, but not all are available for absorption. So humic acid is not soluble in water, but when interacting with alkali of potassium or sodium, we can get salt of humic acid (humate), which is already well soluble, and, therefore, available to plants
Potassium humate or sodium is an organic mineral fertilizer that has a protective and biostimulating effect on the plant, therefore it contributes to the cultivation of environmentally friendly products, reducing the content of biotoxins, radionuclides and heavy metals, increasing the content of vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates in the fruits of plants, improving marketable type of products grown.
WMD - fertilizer of prolonged, gradual action. They begin to “work” when the root system is already beginning to develop and is twining the granules to draw the mineral components from the fertilizer. But up to this point, humic substances deposited on the surface of fertilizer granules are involved in stimulating the development of roots.
WMD, getting into the soil when planting different crops, first of all, gives humate to the environment, stimulating seed germination and the development of root hairs. And when the root system is sufficiently developed, it absorbs food from WMD and the surrounding soil environment.